Transplant of Mensequimales Stem Cells in newborns.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease caused by multiple factors that, added to the immaturity of the airway, causes a decrease in lung growth. This results in a limitation in respiratory function of variable degree, which usually occurs in premature infants, causing respiratory conditions, cerebral palsy and death of the infant.

The objective of the study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the application of mesenchymal stem cells in premature babies. Two groups were generated with different doses for the administration of stem cells. The first group of babies was administered 1 x 10 7 cells in 2 ml of saline, the second group was administered 2 x 10 7 cells in 4 ml of saline.

The investigation was carried out for 2 years. After the application, evaluations were made for the determination of growth, respiratory health status, neurological development, verification of medication list, and number of admissions for hospitalization.

As a result, safety was observed in the application of mesenchymal stem cells, since there was no toxicity or tumor formation during the follow-up of the study in any of the treated babies. In addition, no baby treated with stem cells on discharge required oxygen therapy, compared with the group that did not receive the supply of mesenchymal stem cells. Also, it was recorded that no baby was hospitalized for any respiratory infection after 12 months.
Finally, in the study it was observed that no baby presented cerebral palsy, in comparison with the control group, where a baby was diagnosed with cerebral palsy.

In summary, the application of mesenchymal stem cells in preterm infants appears to be safe to prevent and / or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia, without respiratory problems, and potentially effective up to 2 years of follow-up.

So Yoon Ahn, MD, PhD1, * Yun Sil Chang, MD, PhD1,2,3, *, Ji Hye Kim, MD, PhD4, Se In Sung, MD, PhD1, and Won Soon Park, MD, PhD1.2, 3, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants, NCT01632475.